There are fourteen soil orders at the top level of the Australian Soil Classification. Hilgard studied the relationship among rock material, climate, and vegetation, and the type of soils that were developed. Soils can effectively remove impurities,  kill disease agents,  and degrade contaminants, this latter property being called natural attenuation. Potassium fixation often occurs when soils dry and the potassium is bonded between layers of illite clay. The exposure of parent material to favourable conditions produces mineral soils that are marginally suitable for plant growth. At a later time when those bacteria die, their nitrogen may be released as ammonium by the processes of mineralisation. In that form the nitrogen is said to be immobilised. Organisms colonise and break down organic materials, making available nutrients upon which other plants and animals can live.
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Humus refers to organic matter that has been decomposed by soil flora and fauna to the point where it is resistant to further breakdown.
When bacteria feed on soluble forms of nitrogen ammonium and nitratethey temporarily sequester that nitrogen in their bodies in a process called immobilisation. The French chemist Antoine Lavoisier showed in about that plants and animals must [combust] oxygen internally to live and was able to deduce that most of the pound weight of van Helmont 's willow tree derived from air. Curtis F. Climate is the dominant factor in soil formationand soils show the distinctive characteristics of the climate zones in which they form, with a feedback to climate through transfer of carbon stocked in soil horizons back to the atmosphere.
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Some organisms can exude extracellular enzymes that can act on the sequestered proteins. More than one kind of erosion can occur simultaneously. The forces with which water is held in soils determine its availability to plants.
These include agricultural activities which leave the soil bare during times of heavy rain or strong winds, overgrazingdeforestationand improper construction activity. However, in the case of phosphorus, diffusion is needed to supplement mass flow.
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Usable nitrogen may be lost from soils when it is in the form of nitrate, as it is easily leached. As a plant grows, its roots remove water from the largest pores macropores first.
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|Flooding temporarily increases soil permeability in river bedshelping to recharge aquifers.
Soil animals, including soil macrofauna and soil mesofaunamix soils as they form burrows and poresallowing moisture and gases to move about, a process called bioturbation.
Edaphology studies the influence of soils on living things.
The addition of organic matter to clay soils can render that organic matter and any added nutrients inaccessible to plants and microbes for many years. Whether these are slow or rapid changes depends on climate, topography and biological activity.